(October 1, 1207 - November
16, 1272) is one of the least-known British monarchs, considering the great
length of his reign. He was born in 1207, the son of the infamous King
John, and succeeded to the throne at the age of nine, with the result that
the country was ruled by regents until 1227. Henry married Eleanor of Provence,
and they had nine children, the eldest of whom succeeded Henry as Edward
I of England.
Henry's reign was marked by civil strife, as the English barons demanded
more say in the running of the kingdom. This led to the calling of the
first English Parliament by Simon de Montfort, who, besides being the leader
of opposition, was married to Henry's sister. At the Battle of Lewes in
1264, Henry was defeated and taken prisoner by de Montfort. Henry's son,
Edward, turned the tables on de Montfort in 1265 at the Battle of Evesham,
following which savage retribution was exacted on the rebels. From about
1270, Henry effectively gave up the reins of government to his son. He
died in 1272 and is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Henry was succeded by his son, Edward I of England.