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The Russian Revolution

A Brief Overview
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    The Russian Revolution was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the Russian Tsar system and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until 1992. This movement was led by Vladimir Lenin based upon the ideas of Karl Marx and marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. 

    Brief Chronology leading to Revolution of 1917 

    Dates are correct for the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until 1918. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th Century and a day further behind during the 20th century.
    • 1855 - Start of reign of Tsar Alexander II 
    • 1861 - Emancipation of the serfs 
    • 1866-74 - The White Terror 
    • 1881 - Alexander II assassinated. Alexander III (missing text here) 
    • 1883 - First Russian marxist group formed 
    • 1894 - Start of reign of Nicholas II 
    • 1898 - First Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) 
    • 1900 - Foundation of Socialist Revolutionary Party (SR) 
    • 1903 - Second Congress of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. Split (missing text) 
    • 1904-5 - Russo-Japanese War 
    • 1905 - Russian Revolution/Rebellion
    January - Bloody Sunday in St Petersburg. 
    June - Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea 
    October - general strike, St Petersburg Soviet formed 
    - Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma - October Manifesto 
    • 1906 - First State Duma. Prime Minister - Petr Stolypin. Agrarian reforms begin 
    • 1907 - Second State Duma, February - June 
    • 1907 - Third State Duma, until 1912 
    • 1911 - Stolypin assassinated 
    • 1912 - Fourth State Duma, until 1917. Bolshevik - Menshevik split final 
    • 1914 - Germany declares war on Russia 
    • 1915 - Serious defeats, Nicholas II declares himself CinC. Progressive Bloc formed 
    • 1916 - Gregory Rasputin killed 

    More detailed but still brief chronology of Revolution of 1917 

    Strikes and unrest in Petrograd 
    The February Revolution 
    26th -- 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square 
    27th -- Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators, desertions. Prison, court and 
    Okhrana buidings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries. 
    Petrograd Soviet formed. 
    1st -- Order No.1 of the Petrograd Soviet 
    2nd -- Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed, Prince Lvov PM 
    3rd -- Return of Lenin to Russia. April Theses 
    20th -- Miliukov's note published. Provisional Government falls 
    5th -- New Provisional Government formed. Kerensky minister of war and navy 
    3rd -- First All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd. Closed on 24th 
    16th -- Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces. Initial success 
    2nd -- Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks 
    4th -- Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd 
    6th -- German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. Russians retreat in panic, sacking the town of Tarnopol. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered 
    7th -- Lvov resigns. Kerensky is new PM 
    22nd -- Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested 
    26th -- Second coalition government ends 
    27th -- General Lavr Kornilov failed coup. Kornilov arrested and imprisoned 
    1st -- Russia declared a republic 
    4th -- Trotsky and others freed. Trotsky becomes head of Petrograd Soviet 
    25th -- Third coalition government formed 
    10th -- Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising 
    11th -- Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13th 
    20th -- First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd 
    25th -- MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buidings in Petrograd. 
    Winter Palace attacked at 9.40pm. Kerensky flees Petrograd 
    26th -- Second Congress of Soviets. Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk-out in 
    protest at coup. Decrees on peace and land reform. Soviet government declared - 
    the Council of People's Commissars; Bolshevik dominated with Lenin as chairman 

    See also: Russian Civil War


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