by Yousuf Karsh
Born at Blenheim Palace, near the town of Woodstock in Oxfordshire, Winston
Churchill was a descendant of the first famous member of the Churchill
family: John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (whose father was also
a "Sir Winston Churchill"). Winston's politician father, Lord Randolph
Churchill, was the third son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough: Winston's
mother was Jennie Jerome (née Jeanette Jerome) of Brooklyn, New
York, daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome.
As per tradition, Churchill spent much of his childhood at boarding
schools, rarely visited by his mother, whom he worshipped, despite his
letters begging her to either come or let his father let him come home.
He similarly had a distant relationship with his father, despite keenly
following his father's career. Once in 1886 he is reported to have proclaimed
"My daddy is Chancellor of the Exchequer and one day that's what I'm going
to be." His desolate, lonely childhood stayed with him throughout his life.
He was very close to his nursemaid, and deeply saddened when she died.
In 1893 he enrolled in the Royal Military College. He graduated two
years later ranked eighth in his class. He was appointed Second Lieutenant
in the 4th Hussars cavalry. In 1895, he went to Cuba as a military observer
with the Spanish army in its fight against the independentists. He also
reported for the Saturday Review. In 1898 he rode as a reporter with the
21st Lancers at the Battle of Omdurman.
As the son of a prominent politician it was unsurprising that Churchill
was soon drawn into politics himself. He started speaking at a number of
Conservative meetings in the 1890s. It was noticable that in the first
few years of his political career, and again in the mid1920s, he frequently
used his father's slogan of "Tory Democracy". Many were to regard Churchill
in his early years as being obsessed with continuing his father's battles
from fifteen years earlier.
In 1899 was considered as prospective candidate for Oldham. One of the
town's two MPs died, and with the other in ill health he was persuaded
to resign so that both seats could be elected together. Churchill found
himself thrust into a prominent by-election, standing alongside James Mawdsley,
the Lancashire general secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Cotton Spinners
and one of the few prominent Conservative trade unionists. The Liberal
candidates were Alfred Emmott and Walter Runciman, who later sat in the
Cabinet alongside Churchill. The by-election was dominated by a number
of issues, including a Clerical Tithes Bill in Parliament, the brunt of
criticism for which fell upon Churchill as a candidate for the governing
party and the only Anglican of the four (though he was non-practicising).
Facing attacks on the Bill, Churchill repudiated it. He later commented
"This was a frightful mistake. It is not the slightest use defending Governments
or parties unless you defend the worst thing about which they are attacked."
The Conservative leader in the Commons, Arthur Balfour commented "I thought
he was a young man of promise, but it appears he is a young man of promises."
Despite this, Churchill and Mawdsley narrowly lost the marginal seat, though
with no harm to themselves as the Conservative government was facing a
period of unpopularity. Runciman is reported to have commented to Churchill:
"Don't worry, I don't think this is the last the country has heard of either
Churchill then became a war correspondent in the second Anglo-Boer war
between Britain and self-proclaimed Afrikaaners in South Africa. He was
captured in a Boer ambush of a British Army train convoy, but managed a
high profile escape and eventually crossed the South African border to
Lourenço Marques (now Maputo in Mozambique).
Churchill returned to Oldham and used the status achieved to stand again
for the seat in the 1900 general election when he was narrowly elected
for the seat. It was the successful launch of a political career which
would last a total of sixty-four years, serving as an MP in the House of
Commons from 1900 to 1922 and from 1924 to 1964. At first a member of the
Conservative Party, he 'crossed the floor' in 1904 to join the Liberals
over the issue of protective tariffs.
In the 1906 general election, Churchill won a seat in Manchester.
In the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman he served as Under-Secretary
of State for the Colonies. Churchill soon became the most prominent member
of the Government outside the Cabinet, and when Campbell-Bannerman was
succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, it came as little surprise
when Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of
Trade. Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was
obliged to seek re-election at a by-election. Churchill lost his Manchester
seat to the Conservative William Joynson-Hicks, but was soon elected in
another by-election at Dundee. As President of the Board of Trade he pursued
radical social reforms in conjunction with David Lloyd George, the new
Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1910 Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary,
where he was to prove somewhat controversial. A famous photograph from
the time shows the impetuous Churchill taking personal charge of the January
1911 Sidney Street Siege, peering around a corner to view a fierce gun
battle between cornered anarchists and Scots Guards. His role attracted
much criticism. Arthur Balfour asked, "He [Churchill] and a photographer
were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was
doing but what was the Right Honourable gentleman doing?"
In 1911, Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he would
hold into the First World War. He was one of the political and military
engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during
World War I, which led to his description as "the butcher of Gallipoli".
When Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives
demanded Churchill's demotion as the price for entry. For several months
Churchill served in the non-portfolio job of Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster, before resigning from the government feeling his energies were
not being used. He rejoined the army, though remained an MP, and served
for several months on the Western Front. During this period his second
in command was a young Archibald Sinclair who would later lead the Liberal
In December 1916, Asquith fell and was replaced by Lloyd George, however
the time was thought to not yet be right to risk the Conservatives' wrath
by bringing Churchill back into government. However in July 1917 Churchill
was appointed Minister of Munitions. After the ending of the war Churchill
served as both Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air
(1919-1921). Churchill suggested chemical weapons be used "against recalcitrant
Arabs as an experiment". He said, "I do not understand this squeamishness
about the use of gas. We have definitely adopted the position at the Peace
Conference of arguing in favour of the retention of gas as a permanent
method of warfare. It is sheer affectation to lacerate a man with the poisonous
fragment of a bursting shell and to boggle at making his eyes water by
means of lachrymatory gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas
against uncivilised tribes. The moral effect should be so good that the
loss of life should be reduced to a minimum. It is not necessary to use
only the most deadly gasses: gasses can be used which cause great inconvenience
and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent
effects on most of those affected."
During this time (1919-1921), he undertook with surprising zeal the
cutting of military expenditure. However, the major preoccupation of his
tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil
War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring
that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". He secured from a divided
and loosely organized Cabinet an intensification and prolongation of the
British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament
or the nation--and in the face of the bitter hostility of labour. In 1920,
after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental
in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded the Ukraine. He became
Secretary of State for the Colonies 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish
treaty of 1921 which established the Irish Free State.
In October 1922, Churchill underwent an operation to remove his appendix.
Upon his return, he learnt that the government had fallen and a General
Election was looming. The Liberal Party was now beset by internal division
and Churchill's campaign was weak. He lost his seat at Dundee, quipping
that he had lost his ministerial office, his seat and his appendix all
at once. The victorious candidates for the two-member seat included the
Prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill stood for the Liberals again
in the 1923 general election, but over the next twelve months he moved
towards the Conservative Party, though initially using the labels "Anti-Socialist"
and "Constitutionalist". Two years later in the General Election of 1924
he was elected to represent Epping (where there is now a statue of him)
as a "Constitutionalist" with Conservative backing. The following year
he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting that, "Anyone can
rat [change parties], but it takes a certain ingenuity to rerat." He was
appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and
oversaw the UK's disasterous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted
in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General
Strike of 1926. During the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported
to have suggested that machine guns should be used on the striking miners.
Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the
and during the dispute he argued that "either the country will break the
General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country". Furthermore,
he was to controversially claim that the Fascism of Benito Mussolini had
"rendered a service to the whole world", showing as it had "a way to combat
subversive forces" — that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark
against the perceived threat of Communist revolution.
The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election.
In the next two years Churchill became estranged from the Conservative
leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule.
When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931 Churchill
was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was now at the lowest point in
his career in a period known as 'the wilderness years.' He spent much of
the next few years concentrating on his writing, including A History
of the English Speaking Peoples (which was not published until well
after WWII). He became most notable for his outspoken opposition towards
the granting of independence to India. Soon though, his attention was drawn
to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Germany's rearmament. For a time he was
a lone voice calling on Britain to re-arm itself and counter the belligerence
of Germany. Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement
of Hitler. He was also an outspoken supporter of Edward VIII during the
Abdication Crisis leading to some speculation that he might be appointed
Prime Minister if the King refused to take Baldwin's advice and consequently
the government resigned. However this did not happen and Churchill found
himself isolated and in a bruised position for some time after this.
Role as Wartime Prime Minister
At the outbreak of the Second World War Churchill was appointed First Lord
of the Admiralty. On Chamberlain's resignation in May, 1940, Churchill
was appointed Prime Minister and formed an all-party government. In response
to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in
charge of the prosecution of the war, he created and took the additional
position of Minister of Defence. He immediately put his friend and confidant,
the industrialist and newspaper baron Max Aitken, (Lord Beaverbrook)
in charge of aircraft production. It was Aitken's astounding business acumen
that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering
that eventually made the difference in the war.
His speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled United Kingdom.
His famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat" speech
was his first as Prime Minister. He followed that closely, before the Battle
of Britain, with "We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be,
we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills;
we shall never surrender."
His good relationship with Franklin Roosevelt secured the United Kingdom
vital supplies via the North Atlantic Ocean shipping routes. It was for
this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected.
Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method
of not only providing military hardware to Britain without the need for
monetary payment, but also of providing, free of fiscal charge, much of
the shipping that transported the supplies. Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded
congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the
form of defending the USA; and so Lend-lease was born. Churchill initiated
the Special Operations Executive (SOE), under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of
Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive
and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and
also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's
current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog".
However, some of the military actions during the war remain controversial.
Churchill was at best indifferent and perhaps complicit in the Great Bengal
Famine of 1943 which took the lives of at least 2.5 million Bengalis. Japanese
troops were threatening British India after having successfully taken neighbouring
British Burma. Some consider the British government's policy of denying
effective famine relief a deliberate and callous scorched earth policy
adopted in the event of a successful Japanese invasion. Churchill supported
the bombing of Dresden shortly before the end of the war; Dresden was a
mostly civilian target with many refugees from the East and of allegedly
little military value. However, the bombing was helpful to the allied Soviets.
Churchill was party to treaties that would re-draw post-WWII European
and Asian boundaries. The boundary between North Korea and South Korea
was proposed at the Yalta Conference, as well as the expulsion of Japanese
forces from those countries. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements
were discussed as early as 1943 by Roosevelt and Churchill; the settlement
was officially agreed to by Truman, Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam (Article
XIII of the Potsdam protocol). One of these settlements was about the borders
of Poland, i.e. the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union, the so
called Curzon line, and between Germany and Poland, the so called the Oder-Neisse
line. Despite the fact that Poland was the first country that resisted
Hitler, Polish borders and government were determined by the Great Powers
without asking the voice of the Polish government in exile. Poles who had
fought alongside Britain throughout the war felt betrayed. Churchill himself
opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote
bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the
A part of the settlement was an agreement to transfer the remaining citizens
of Germany from the area. (Transfer of Poles didn't need to be approved.)
The exact numbers and movement of ethnic populations over the Polish-German
and Polish-USSR borders in the period at the end of World War II is extremely
difficult to determine. This is not least because, under the Nazi regime,
many Poles were replaced in their homes by the conquering Germans in an
attempt to consolidate Nazi power. In the case of the post-WWII settlement,
Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between
the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.
As Churchill expounded in the House of Commons in 1944, "Expulsion is the
method which, in so far as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory
and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble...
A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which
are more possible in modern conditions."
Although the importance of Churchill's role in World War II was undeniable,
he produced many enemies in his own country. His expressed contempt for
ideas such as public health care and for better education for the majority
of the population in particular produced much dissatisfaction amongst the
population, particularly those who had fought in the war. Immediately following
the close of the war in Europe Churchill was heavily defeated at election
by Clement Attlee and the Labour Party.
Winston Churchill was an early supporter of the pan-Europeanism that
eventually lead to the formation of the European Common market and later
the European Union (for which one of the three main buildings of the European
Parliament is named in his honour). Churchill was also instrumental in
giving France a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (which
he supported in order to have another European power to counter-balance
the Soviet Union's permanent seat).
At the beginning of the Cold War he coined the term the "Iron Curtain,"
a phrase originally created by Joseph Goebbels that entered the public
consciousness after a 1946 speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri
when Churchill famously declared "From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste
on the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind
that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern
Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and
Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what
I must call the Soviet sphere."
Following Labour's defeat in the General Election of 1951, Churchill again
became Prime Minister. In 1953 he was awarded two major honours. He was
knighted and became Sir Winston Churchill and he was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical
description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human
values". A stroke in June of that year led to him being paralysed down
his left side. He retired because of his health on April 5, 1955 but retained
his post as Chancellor of the University of Bristol.
During the next few years he revised and finally published A History
of the English Speaking Peoples in four volumes. In 1956 he was awarded
the Karlspreis of the city of Aachen in Germany, for his idea of a "United
States of Europe". In 1959 Churchill inherited the title of Father of the
House, becoming the MP with the longest continuous service — since 1924.
He was to hold the position until his retirement from the Commons in 1964,
the position of Father of the House passing to Rab Butler.
On September 2, 1908, at the socially desirable St. Margaret's, Westminster,
Churchill married Clementine Ogilvy Hozier (April 1, 1885-December 12,
1977), a dazzling but largely penniless beauty whom he met at a dinner
party that March. (He had proposed to actress Ethel Barrymore, but was
turned down). They had five children: Diana; Randolph; Sarah, who co-starred
with Fred Astaire in Royal Wedding; Marigold); and Mary, who has
written a book on her parents.
Clementine's mother was Lady Blanche Henrietta Ogilvy (1852-1925), second
wife of Sir Henry Montague Hozier and a daughter of the 7th Earl of Airlie.
Clementine's paternity, however, is open to healthy debate. Lady Blanche
was well known for sharing her favours and was eventually divorced as a
result. She herself maintained that Clementine's biological father was
Capt. William George "Bay" Middleton, a noted horseman. But Clementine's
biographer Joan Hardwick has surmised, due to Sir Henry Hozier's reputed
sterility, that all Lady Blanche's "Hozier" children were actually fathered
by her sister's husband, Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford (1837-1916, better
known as a grandfather of the infamous Mitford sisters of the 1920s).
Churchill's son, Randolph, and grandson, Winston, both followed him
On January 15, 1965 Churchill suffered another stroke — a severe cerebral
thrombosis — that left him gravely ill. He died nine days later on January
24, 1965, 70 years to the day of his father's death. His body lay in State
in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held
at St Paul's Cathedral. This was the first state funeral for a commoner
since that of Field Marshal Lord Roberts of Kandahar in 1914. It was Churchill's
wish that, were de Gaulle to outlive him, his (Churchill's) funeral procession
should pass through Waterloo Station. As his coffin passed down the Thames
on a boat, the cranes of London's docklands bowed in salute.
At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at Saint Martin's
Churchyard, Bladon, near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England.
Churchill was also a notable historian, producing many works. Some of his
twentieth century writings such as The World Crisis (detailing the
First World War) and The Second World War are highly autobiographical,
telling the story of the conflict. Initially Churchill used the name Winston
Churchill for his books. However early on he discovered that there
was also an American writer of the same name, who had been published first.
So as to prevent the two being confused, they agreed that the American
would publish as Winston Churchill, and the Englishman as
Spencer Churchill (sometimes abbreviated to Winston S. Churchill).
Churchill's works include:
The River War - Published in 1899 (2 vols) Kitchner's reconquest
of the Sudan in 1898. Also published in a 1 vol abridged edn.
Savrola - Churchill's only novel. Published in 1900
Lord Randolph Churchill - A two-volume biography of his father.
The World Crisis - Six volumes covering the Great War
My Early Life - An autobiography covering the first quarter century
of his career.
Marlborough: His Life and Times - A biography of his ancestor, John
Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, published in 4-, 6-, and 2-volume editions.
The Second World War 6 volumes (sometimes reprinted as 12)
A History of the English Speaking Peoples - used as the basis of
the BBC radio series This Sceptred Isle
The Scaffolding of Rhetoric (http://www-adm.pdx.edu/user/frinq/pluralst/churspek.htm)
- a 1,763-word essay on oratory; unpublished, written 1897.
Painting as a Pastime - a short appreciation of painting
Churchill was an ardent supporter of Zionism, following his meetings with
Chaim Weizmann and the visits in Eretz Israel - Palestina. He kept supporting
it (and later, Israel) even after WWII. (http://www.jewishpost.com/jewishpost/jpn201b.html)
Churchill College, a constituent college of the University of Cambridge,
was founded in 1960 as the national and commonwealth memorial to Winston
The Churchill tank, a heavy infantry tank of World War II, was named
in his honour.
Churchill is believed by several writers to have suffered from bipolar
disorder and in his last years, Alzheimer's disease; certainly he suffered
from fits of depression that he called his "black dogs," Some researchers
also believe that Churchill was dyslexic, based on the difficulties he
described himself having at school. However, the Churchill Foundation strongly
refutes this (Source: http://www.winstonchurchill.org ).
The United States Navy destroyer USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81)
is named in his honour. Churchill was the first person to be made an Honorary
Citizen of the United States.
Churchill was voted as "The Greatest Briton" in 2002 "100 Greatest Britons"
poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public. He was also named
Magazine "Man of the Half-Century" in the early 1950s.
The American song writer Jerome Kern was christened Jerome because his
parents lived near a park named Jerome Park. This park was in turn named
after Churchill's grandfather (the father of Churchill's mother Jennie
The Churchill cigar size actually was named after him.
Churchill's War Cabinet, May 1940 - May 1945
Winston Churchill - Prime Minister, Minister of Defence and Leader of the
House of Commons.
Neville Chamberlain - Lord President of the Council
Clement Attlee - Lord Privy Seal and effective Deputy Leader of the
House of Commons.
Lord Halifax - Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Arthur Greenwood - Minister without Portfolio
August 1940: Lord Beaverbrook, Minister of Aircraft Production, joins the
October 1940: Sir John Anderson succeeds Neville Chamberlain as Lord President.
Sir Kingsley Wood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Ernest Bevin, the
Minister of Labour, enter the War Cabinet.
December 1940: Anthony Eden succeeds Lord Halifax as Foreign Secretary.
Halifax remains nominally in the Cabinet as Ambassador to the United States.
May 1941: Lord Beaverbrook ceased to be Minister of Aircraft Production,
but remains in the Cabinet. His successor was not in the War Cabinet.
June 1941: Lord Beaverbrook becomes Minister of Supply, remaining in the
1941: Oliver Lyttelton enters the Cabinet as Minister Resident in the Middle
4 February 1942: Lord Beaverbrook becomes Minister of War Production, his
successor as Minister of Supply is not in the War Cabinet.
19 February 1942: Beaverbrook resigns. Clement Attlee becomes Secretary
of State for Dominion Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister. Sir Stafford Cripps
succeeds Attlee as Lord Privy Seal and takes over the position of Leader
of the House of Commons from Churchill. Sir Kingsley Wood leaves the War
Cabinet, though remaining Chancellor of the Exchequer.
22 February 1942: Arthur Greenwood resigns from the War Cabinet.
March 1942: Oliver Lyttelton fills the vacant position of Minister of Production
("war" was dropped from the title). Richard Gardiney Casey (a member of
the Australian Parliament) succeeds Oliver Lyttelton as Minister Resident
in the Middle East.
October 1942: Sir Stafford Cripps retires as Lord Privy Seal and Leader
of the House of Commons and leaves the War Cabinet. His successor as Lord
Privy Seal is not in the Cabinet, Anthony Eden takes the additional position
of Leader of the House of Commons. The Home Secretary, Herbert Stanley
Morrison, enters the Cabinet.
September 1943: Sir John Anderson succeeds Sir Kingsley Wood as Chancellor
of the Exchequer, remaining in the War Cabinet. Clement Attlee succeeds
Anderson as Lord President, remaining also Deputy Prime Minister. Attlee's
successor as Dominions Secretary is not in the Cabinet.
November 1943: Lord Woolton enters the Cabinet as Minister of Reconstruction.
Winston Churchill's Caretaker Cabinet, May - July 1945
Winston Churchill - Prime Minister and Minister of Defence
Lord Woolton - Lord President of the Council
Lord Beaverbrook - Lord Privy Seal
Sir John Anderson - Chancellor of the Exchequer
Sir Donald Bradley Somervell - Secretary of State for the Home Department
Anthony Eden - Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Leader of the
House of Commons
Oliver Stanley - Secretary of State for the Colonies
Lord Cranborne - Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
Sir James Grigg - Secretary of State for War
Leo Amery - Secretary of State for India and Burma
Lord Rosebery - Secretary of State for Scotland
Harold Macmillan - Secretary of State for Air
Brendan Bracken - First Lord of the Admiralty
Oliver Lyttelton - President of the Board of Trade and Minister of Production
Robert Spear Hudson - Minister of Agriculture
Rab Butler - Minister of Labour
Winston Churchill's Third Cabinet, October 1951 - April 1955
Winston Churchill - Prime Minister and Minister of Defence
Lord Simonds - Lord Chancellor
Lord Woolton - Lord President of the Council
Lord Salisbury - Lord Privy Seal
Rab Butler - Chancellor of the Exchequer
Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe - Secretary of State for the Home Department
Anthony Eden - Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Oliver Lyttelton - Secretary of State for the Colonies
Lord Ismay - Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
James Stuart - Secretary of State for Scotland
Peter Thorneycroft - President of the Board of Trade
Lord Cherwell - Paymaster-General
Sir Walter Monckton - Minister of Labour
Henry Crookshank - Minister of Health and Leader of the House of Commons
Harold Macmillan - Minister of Housing and Local Government
Lord Leathers - Minister for the Co-ordination of Transport, Fuel, and
March 1952: Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Ismay as Commonwealth Relations
Secretary. Salisbury remains also Lord Privy Seal. Lord Alexander succeeds
Churchill as Minister of Defence.
May 1952: Henry Crookshank succeeds Lord Salisbury as Lord Privy Seal.
Salisbury remains Commonwealth Relations Secretary. Crookshank's successor
as Minister of Health is not in the Cabinet.
November 1952: Lord Woolton becomes Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
Lord Salisbury succeeds Lord Woolton as Lord President. Lord Swinton succeeds
Lord Salisbury as Commonwealth Relations Secretary.
September 1953: Florence Horsbrugh, the Minister of Education, Sir Thomas
Dugdale, the Minister of Agriculture, and Gwilym Lloyd George, the Minister
of Food, enter the cabinet. The Ministry for the Co-ordination of Transport,
Fuel, and Power, is abolished, and Lord Leathers leaves the Cabinet.
October 1953: Lord Cherwell resigns as Paymaster General. His successor
is not in the Cabinet.
July 1954: Alan Lennox-Boyd succeeds Oliver Lyttelton as Colonial Secretary.
Derick Heathcoat Amory succeeds Sir Thomas Dugdale as Minister of Agriculture.
October 1954: Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, now Lord Kilmuir, succeeds Lord Simonds
as Lord Chancellor. Gwilym Lloyd George succeeds him as Home Secretary.
The Food Ministry is merged into the Ministry of Agriculture. Sir David
Eccles succeeds Florence Horsbrugh as Minister of Education. Harold Macmillan
succeeds Lord Alexander as Minister of Defence. Duncan Sandys succeeds
Macmillan as Minister of Housing and Local Government. Osbert Peake, the
Minister of Pensions and National Insurance, enters the Cabinet.
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