Brough's Books on The Roman Republic

The Roman Republic

History of Ancient Rome
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    The Roman Republic lasted as a representative government of Rome from 509 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which is typically placed at 44 BC or 27 BC. 

    The city of Rome is located on the Tiber River very near the west coast of Italy. It was at the northernmost border of the territory in which the Latin language was spoken and at the southern edge of Etruria, the territory in which the Etruscan language was spoken. 

    Government Institutions

    The Romans observed two principles for their officials: annuality or the observation of a one year term and collegiality or the holding of the same office by at least two men at the same time. The supreme office of consul, for instance, was always held by two men together, who exercised a power of mutual veto over any actions by the other consul. If the Roman army took the field under the command of the two consuls they were to alternate days of command. Most other offices were held by more than two men - in the late Republic there were 8 praetors a year and 20 quaestors. 

    The dictators were an exception to annuality and collegiality, and the censors to annuality. In times of emergency (always military) a single dictator was elected for a term of 6 months to have sole command of the state. On a regular but not annual basis 2 censors were elected every five years but for a term of 18 months. 

    The Legion was the backbone of Roman military power. 

    History of the Republic

    The Founding of Rome - 753 B.C.E

    The Romans were very much convinced that their city was found on the year 753 BC. Rome has often been said to have been started by Romulus and Remus. 

    The Foundation of the Republic - 509 B.C.E.

    Livy's version of the establishment of the Republic states that the last of the Kings of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (superbus, "the proud") had a thoroughly unpleasant son, Sextus Tarquinius, who raped a Roman noblewoman named Lucretia. Lucretia compelled her family to take action by gathering the men, telling them what happened, and killing herself. They then were compelled to avenge her, and led an uprising that drove the Tarquins out of Rome to take refuge in Etruria. 

    Lucretia's husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus and Lucius Junius Brutus were elected as the first two consuls, the chief officers of the new Republic. The Brutus who assassinated Julius Caesar was a descendant of the first Brutus. 

    The early consuls took over the roles of the king with the exception of his high priesthood in the worship of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at the huge temple on the Capitoline Hill. For that duty the Romans elected a Rex sacrorum or "king of holy things." Until the end of the Republic the accusation that a powerful man wanted to make himself king remained a career-shaking charge. Julius Caesar's assassins claimed after they acted that they were preserving Rome from the re-establishment of an explicit monarchy. 

    Patrician and Plebeian

    The people of Rome were divided into patricians and plebeians. These words have taken on such different connotations of wealth and ordinariness in modern English that they must be examined in their Roman context. The two classes were ancestral and inherited. One's class was fixed by birth rather than by wealth, and though patricians had in the early Republic monopolized all political offices and probably most of the wealth, there are always signs of wealthy plebeians in the historical record, and many patrician families had lost both wealth and any political influence by the later Republic. One could move from one to another by adoption, like the political operator Clodius in the late Republic, who managed to have himself adopted into a plebeian branch of his own family for political purposes, but it was rare. By the 2nd century BC the classifications had meaning predominantly in religious functions - many priesthoods were restricted to patricians. 

    The relationship between the plebeians and the patricians was sometimes so strained that the plebeians seceded from the city - literally left the city with their families and movable possessions and set up camp on a hill outside the walls. These secessions happened in 494, 450, and around 287 BC. Their refusal to cooperate any longer with the patricians led to social changes on each occasion. In 494, only about 15 years after the establishment of the Republic, the plebeians for the first time elected two leaders, to whom they gave the title Tribunes. The plebs took an oath that they would hold their leaders 'sacrosanct' or inviolate during their terms, and that the united plebs would kill anyone who harmed a tribune. The second secession led to further legal definition of their rights and duties and increased the number of tribunes to 10. The final secession gave the vote of the Concilium Plebis or "Council of the Plebeians" the force of law - we call this a "plebiscite". 

    The Social War - 90 - 88 B.C.E.

    In 90 almost all of the Italian allies of Rome rebelled in what the Romans called the Social War (allies = Socii, related to the English "associates"). The allied cities in the Italian peninsula had sought for some time Roman citizenship and therefore more of a say in the external policy of the Roman Republic - most local affairs were self-governing and not as much of an issue as when the alliance would go to war and what the share of the proceeds would be. Rome undercut the military rebellion by extending citizenship to all of Italy south of the Po River and then spent two years defeating the cities still in arms. Sulla came to prominence as an officer in this war. Roman citizenship and the right to vote was limited, as always in the ancient world, by the requirement of physical presence on voting day. After 88 BC candidates regularly paid the expenses (or part of them) for their supporters to come to Rome to vote. 

    The Spartacist Rebellion - 73 - 71 B.C.E.

    Large scale agriculture in the Italian peninsula came to depend on slavery and was rocked by a severe slave revolt led by Spartacus that lasted from 73 to 71 B.C.E. 

    see Roman Empire

    • political offices of the Republic 
    Pontifex Maximus 
    Cursus honorum 
    • figures of the Republic 
    Early Republic 
    Lucius Junius Brutus 
    Appius Claudius the Censor 
    Samnite wars 327 - 290 BC 
    Punic wars 
    Hannibal - see Carthage 
    Scipio Africanus Major 
    Scipio Aemilianus 
    Cato the Censor 
    Late Republic 
    Ahenobarbus family 
    Julius Caesar 
    Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus 
    Gaius Sempronius Gracchus 
    C. Marius 
    L. Cornelius Sulla 
    Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 
    Marcus Licinius Crassus 
    Marcus Tullius Cicero 
    Latin Literature of the Republic 
    Fabius Pictor 

    Another Roman Republic was declared in Rome on February 9, 1849 by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi. 

    It was a brief experience, but soon (1860) Italy would be unified by the king of Sardinia, and later (1870) Rome too would be part of this kingdom.


    This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License, which means that you can copy and modify it as long as the entire work (including additions) remains under this license. See for details. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Roman_Republic

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