(February 6, 1665 - August
1, 1714) the first Monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and also separately
Queen of Ireland (March 8, 1702 - August 1, 1714), was the second daughter
of King James II of England from his first, Protestant, wife. At the time
her parents were Duke and Duchess of York, the monarchy had only recently
been restored, and there was still every prospect of King Charles II of
England, Anne's uncle, producing a male heir.
Anne married Prince George of Denmark (another Protestant state) in 1683,
and the couple had 17 children, most of whom died in infancy and none survived
long enough to ascend to the throne. When Anne's father, James II, took
as his second wife the Catholic Mary of Modena, concern grew that they
would produce a son and that James would attempt to restore Roman Catholicism
as the prevalent faith within Britain. James was deposed in 1688, in favour
of his elder daughter, Mary (who became Mary II of England), and her husband,
William of Orange. However, they were childless, and the succession passed
to Anne in 1702. Unfortunately, her surviving son, William, had died two
years earlier, and she failed to produce another heir.
Anne's reign is best remembered for two things: a distinctive style
of architecture; and the influence of the Churchills. John Churchill, an
outstanding military commander, was created Duke of Marlborough following
his victory at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704. He owed his favour with
the queen partly to her long-standing friendship with his wife, Sarah.
When, in about 1711, the two women fell out, the Duke and Duchess both
lost preferment. It was also during Anne's reign, in 1707, that the Scottish
Parliament ceased to exist as a separate entity.
Queen Anne died in 1714 and is buried in Westminster Abbey. The succession
passed to her nearest Protestant relatives, the rulers of Hanover in Germany.
The first in line was the Electress Sophia, but she died a few weeks before
Anne, and her heir succeeded to the throne as King George I of Great Britain.
The term, Queen Anne, when applied to a style of furniture or architecture,
refers to this monarch.